After my last post, some questions came up about how to foster the sort of independence that made Mrs. G’s classroom work like a well oiled machine. A big part of the answer is teacher talking moves!

So much of our daily classroom life is spent engaged in talk. The importance of student talk is immeasurable, and in order to talk well students must be given many opportunities to converse and become immersed in an environment that values their voice. An entire blog post could be devoted to the importance of fostering student talk, but I want to focus on how teacher talk can cultivate student independence and accountability in the workshop classroom.

Teacher talk is what sets the classroom tone. The talking moves that we make day-to-day make a profound impact on students. How many of you have come to the end of a school year and noticed that your students sound just like you? The behaviors, attitudes, and habits we model will be emulated by our students, which is why it is so important that we use our talk effectively.

#### Talk to Foster Independence

As mentioned in my previous post, a main belief backing the workshop model is that we are working to create independent readers and writers who have a repertoire of effective reading and writing strategies they can apply as needed. Workshop teachers do this by using whole-class mini-lessons to add to students’ repertoire, teaching them how to use various strategies they can draw on over and over. This approach differs from traditional classrooms, where teachers use instruction at the start of the lesson to model and teach what everyone is expected to do during independent work time that day. Basically, in a workshop classroom, you should not assign a task for students to complete that day!

The language we use to dismiss students to work time will encourage the idea that students have options and choice about their day’s work. Some phrases you might say include:

- “So let’s review your options for what work you’ll do today.” *Refer students to unit anchor chart.
- “So when you’re ready to work on [insert the day’s mini-lesson topic] remember this tip… But you can also draw on all you’ve learned to do, prior to now.”
- “So we can now add [insert the day’s mini-lesson topic] to our Strategies of…. anchor chart. Look over the chart, and make a plan for today. What will you be working on?” *Students could turn and talk, telling a partner their plan for the day.
- “So far we’ve learned readers/writers use many different strategies to [name out skill]. Which one will you work on today?” *Students could raise their hand in a quick informal poll.
- “So when you reach that part of your text, remember that you can…” *This is good when you know that you have students who have not reached the particular point in a book for the strategy you’ve just modeled.

All of these talking moves will allow students to reflect on their progress, set goals, and make an action plan. These actions are the exact behaviors we expect from independent, self-directed learners!

#### Talk to Foster Work Accountability

We can also use our talk to promote accountability in student work. Sometimes there are days when a student may not have approximated any of the strategies that you have modeled. You would like to give students an opportunity to turn and talk about that work, but you worry that that particular student will not have anything to contribute.

I saw this situation recently in a third-grade classroom. Students were working on tracking characters along a story mountain. Some students had drawn their mountain, but had not added any plot points. The teacher kept them accountable by saying,

“Even if you haven’t drawn any plot points, **point and say** what your points would have been.”

We can use talk as a means for students to practice strategies they have not exhibited “on paper”. No one gets an out because they didn’t get to it.

#### Talk to Foster Accountable Talk

We’ve all seen the Accountable Talk posters on Pinterest and have really taken to them. However, students cannot learn these talking moves from a poster on the wall. We as teachers need to model these talking moves regularly when conversing with students. Some common conversational moves and their purposes are:

- Marking: “That was an important point.”
- Challenging students: “What do
*you*think?” - Keeping everyone together: “Who can repeat what Johnny just said?”
- Keeping the channels open: “Did everyone hear that?”
- Linking contributions: “Who wants to add on to Mikala’s point?
- Verifying and clarifying: “So are you saying…”
- Pressing for accuracy: “Where can we find proof/text evidence of that?”
- Expanding reasoning: “Take your time, say more.”
- Pressing for reasoning: “Why do you think that?”
- Building on prior knowledge: “How does this connect?”

Nancy Frey, at a recent Rutgers University workshop, said that we need to immerse students into these talking patterns by using them as often as possible. When this language becomes a way of life for us, it will soon become a way of life for students.

The sooner we make our talk align with our goals for students, the sooner a positive outcome will ensue. We have to make sure that what we are saying to kids truly embodies our beliefs about teaching and learning. What we *say* in the workshop classroom is just as important as what we *do*.

What kind of talking moves do you make in your classroom to foster independence and accountability?

Let’s keep the conversation going-

*Lindsay*