Argument Writing Toolkit- Shortening Quotations

A common struggle for students when incorporating text evidence into their arguments is they choose quotes that are too long.  Then the piece becomes dominated by a voice other than the author’s.  It’s important to strike a balance between one’s own voice and that or the article quoted.  In argument writing, the author should highlight his or her opinions and reasoning.  A good rule of thumb is that the evidence should only be about 5-10% of the piece.

To help students strike this balance, I put together a small group titled, “Allowing Your Writing to Shine”

At the start of the small group, I began by sharing the teaching point:

Teaching Point- Using Key Portion of Quote

Then I showed students my first try with the original text evidence/ quote highlighted.  This allowed students to see just how quote heavy my original work was.  Next I modeled how I reread to pull out and focus on only the key portions of the quote.  Right in front of students, I used a sharpie to strike out the extraneous parts of the quote– all the while demonstrating my thinking process.  Finally, I unveiled my newly revised second try, which portrays a much better balance between my voice and the quote.

Teaching Tool using Key Portion of Quote

After my demo, I had students point to a paragraph in their own writing piece where they felt text evidence outweighed their voice; and right in front of me, they began the work that I just modeled. While they did this, I coached into their work. Finally releasing the students when they seemed to get the hang of it.

I shared a teaching chart to help students visualize this strategy:

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So in my kit, I house all pieces of the lesson in a sheet protector, which I then keep in a binder that I carry with me around the room.  The writing samples always stay the same.  I pull  out “clean” versions each time I need to teach the lesson, and I make the same teaching moves.

Try this out in your room.  Let me know how it goes! 🙂

Like what you see? More tools to come- Follow along!

Let’s keep the conversation going-

Lindsay

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Argument Writing Conferring Toolkit Series

Thinking ahead is SO important.  As teachers, we are masters of keeping our feet firmly planted in the now, while our eyes look toward the future.  Simultaneously, we plan, prepare, and perfect current and next units of study–always asking, “What do my students need to be successful in this work?”

Argument writing is on the horizon, and to prepare for the unit, I’ve been working on a conferring toolkit.  In case you are unfamiliar with a conferring toolkit, it is a collection of tools to aid in the teaching of reading and/or writing strategies.  The toolkits can be used both during individual conferences or in small groups.   They might include marked up demonstration or anchor texts, annotated sample writings, teaching charts, rubrics, checklists, etc.

While thinking about the upcoming Argument unit, I recalled past student struggles as well as potential pitfalls .  One major hang up for students is how to effectively add text evidence into their argument.  In past years, this difficulty has popped up due to a myriad of common predictable problems all of which can be addressed with the following strategies:

Adding Evidence Strategies

But what tools do I have to teach these strategies??

Enter the conferring toolkit!!

Follow this Argument Writing Conferring Toolkit series as I share some of the teaching charts and tools I created to support students in this work!

Let’s keep the conversation going-

Lindsay

Fostering Student Independence and Accountability

After my last post, some questions came up about how to foster the sort of independence that made Mrs. G’s classroom work like a well oiled machine.  A big part of the answer is teacher talking moves!

So much of our daily classroom life is spent engaged in talk.  The importance of student talk is immeasurable, and in order to talk well students must be given many opportunities to converse and become immersed in an environment that values their voice.  An entire blog post could be devoted to the importance of fostering student talk, but I want to focus on how teacher talk can cultivate student independence and accountability in the workshop classroom.

Teacher talk is what sets the classroom tone.  The talking moves that we make day-to-day make a profound impact on students.  How many of you have come to the end of a school year and noticed that your students sound just like you?  The behaviors, attitudes, and habits we model will be emulated by our students, which is why it is so important that we use our talk effectively.

Talk to Foster Independence

As mentioned in my previous post, a main belief backing the workshop model is that we are working to create independent readers and writers who have a repertoire of effective reading and writing strategies they can apply as needed.  Workshop teachers do this by using whole-class mini-lessons to add to students’ repertoire, teaching them how to use various strategies they can draw on over and over.  This approach differs from traditional classrooms, where teachers use instruction at the start of the lesson to model and teach what everyone is expected to do during independent work time that day.  Basically, in a workshop classroom, you should not assign a task for students to  complete that day!

The language we use to dismiss students to work time will encourage the idea that students have options and choice about their day’s work.  Some phrases you might say include:

  • “So let’s review your options for what work you’ll do today.” *Refer students to unit anchor chart.
  • “So when you’re ready to work on [insert the day’s mini-lesson topic] remember this tip…  But you can also draw on all you’ve learned to do, prior to now.”
  • “So we can now add [insert the day’s mini-lesson topic] to our Strategies of…. anchor chart.  Look over the chart, and make a plan for today.  What will you be working on?” *Students could turn and talk, telling a partner their plan for the day.
  • “So far we’ve learned readers/writers use many different strategies to [name out skill].  Which one will you work on today?” *Students could raise their hand in a quick informal poll.
  • “So when you reach that part of your text, remember that you can…” *This is good when you know that you have students who have not reached the particular point in a book for the strategy you’ve just modeled.
A sample unit anchor chart from a third grade mystery book club series.
A sample unit anchor chart from a third grade mystery book club series.

All of these talking moves will allow students to reflect on their progress, set goals, and make an action plan.  These actions are the exact behaviors we expect from independent, self-directed learners!

Talk to Foster Work Accountability

We can also use our talk to promote accountability in student work.  Sometimes there are days when a student may not have approximated any of the strategies that you have modeled.  You would like to give students an opportunity to turn and talk about that work, but you worry that that particular student will not have anything to contribute.

I saw this situation recently in a third-grade classroom.  Students were working on tracking characters along a story mountain.  Some students had drawn their mountain, but had not added any plot points.  The teacher kept them accountable by saying,

“Even if you haven’t drawn any plot points, point and say what your points would have been.”

We  can use talk as a means for students to practice strategies they have not exhibited “on paper”.  No one gets an out because they didn’t get to it.

Talk to Foster Accountable Talk

We’ve all seen the Accountable Talk posters on Pinterest and have really taken to them.  However, students cannot learn these talking moves from a poster on the wall.  We as teachers need to model these talking moves regularly when conversing with students.  Some common conversational moves and their purposes are:

  • Marking: “That was an important point.”
  • Challenging students: “What do you think?”
  • Keeping everyone together: “Who can repeat what Johnny just said?”
  • Keeping the channels open: “Did everyone hear that?”
  • Linking contributions: “Who wants to add on to Mikala’s point?
  • Verifying and clarifying: “So are you saying…”
  • Pressing for accuracy: “Where can we find proof/text evidence of that?”
  • Expanding reasoning: “Take your time, say more.”
  • Pressing for reasoning: “Why do you think that?”
  • Building on prior knowledge: “How does this connect?”

Nancy Frey, at a recent Rutgers University workshop, said that we need to immerse students into these talking patterns by using them as often as possible.  When this language becomes a way of life for us, it will soon become a way of life for students.

The sooner we make our talk align with our goals for students, the sooner a positive outcome will ensue.  We have to make sure that what we are saying to kids truly embodies our beliefs about teaching and learning.  What we say in the workshop classroom is just as important as what we do.

What kind of talking moves do you make in your classroom to foster independence and accountability?

Let’s keep the conversation going-

Lindsay

If You Build It They Will Come

I believe in the workshop model.  Wholeheartedly.  I know that it is what works best for kids.

But honestly, when I implemented the model, I had a bit of skepticism regarding one aspect.  I never quite understood (or believed?) how young learners could learn a repertoire of reading and/or writing strategies and then just “magically” recall and apply them “independently” during the work period.  Early in my workshop teaching, I questioned, “Wait.  No task?  No assignment?  No specific instructions to go back and try (insert mini-lesson strategy here)?”

I was curious how the youngest learners could be so self-directed and purposeful during independent time.  Like most people, I was afraid to let go.

Now, I see many of the teachers that I work with grappling with the same concern.  However, like a field of dreams, if you build it they will come.

I recently visited a third grade classroom where magic was happening!  The class was in the middle of a mystery book club unit and after the mini-lesson students were sent back to their desk with their “quiet critters” (small craft pom-poms outfitted with feet and eyes) to read.

Immediately, I was impressed with how quickly the students transitioned from the carpet to independent reading.  Two students (who were in differing book clubs-I noticed because they had different books) sat together at the carpet and created twin Venn-diagrams in their notebooks to start character comparisons for the characters they were reading about. Another two met the teacher at her table for a quick small group.  Everyone else?  They returned to their seat, opened their notebooks to the next fresh page, and started reading.

Needless to say, I was impressed and I wanted to stick around.

I started to read over students’ shoulders as they paused (when they decided they were ready) in their reading to do some stop and jot reading notebook work.  What I saw was so impressive!  Students were independently choosing various reading responses to use in their notebook.  Most surprising to me was that students weren’t just jotting once.  The majority of students had chosen to do at least two different types of thinking that day.   For example, some predicted and then chose to do a character comparison.  Others created a suspect chart and wrote about character traits.  But all were reading…. and thinking!

This teacher, through meticulous patience and belief in the workshop model had created what we all strive for.  Her routines and expectations were working!

Look at this example from one student’s notebook:

Starting in the middle of the left page, this student did six separate thinking strategies (all dated 2/24/16). She wrote about book similarities, created a comparison Venn diagram, described a secondary character, named out how a character changed, summarized, and created a character web and attempted to include text evidence.
Starting in the middle of the left page, this student did six separate thinking strategies (all dated 2/24/16). She wrote about book similarities, created a comparison Venn diagram, described a secondary character, named out how a character changed, summarized, and created a character web and attempted to include text evidence.

When I spoke with this student she told me that writing in her notebook helps her reading “go from good to great.”  That sometimes she doesn’t understand something, but then she will write about it and it would become much clearer.  She explained that she chooses what to do based on what Mrs. G has shown them before.  There is no menu of activities to choose from pasted into each reading notebook or listed posted on the board of what to do next.  Strategies had been instilled into each learner in the class and they were drawing upon that knowledge independently.

I moved over to another student who was sitting next to Mrs. G’s anchor chart, and from what it looked like, copying the chart into her notebook.  I asked what she was working on.  She gestured to the chart and told me that she was taking questions from the chart and answering them in her notebook.  And she was!  I remembered that she was one of the ones who had started a Venn diagram  earlier and I wondered if she had abandoned that task for this one.  I asked her about the Venn diagram.  She flipped back a page and said, “That’s right here.  I didn’t finish yet.”  And then after a moments pause, “But I guess I can use the answers to these questions…” She flipped back to the answers based off the anchor chart questions,  “…to finish filling in my chart.”  She returned to her Venn diagram with urgency and fervor.  I hadn’t even said a word.

After I picked my jaw up off the floor, I immediately went to commend Mrs. G.  She was making it happen! Her kids were readers and independent thinkers and doing all the things we want students to do in the workshop model!   I was so excited!

But Mrs. G was busy… quietly conferring with a student.

So, I tiptoed out with a smile on my face and let them continue doing their thing.  I felt assured in the good work that we do and the value of the workshop model.  It IS possible!  She had built it and they had come.

Let’s keep the conversation going-

Lindsay

Making Time for Vocabulary Instruction that Matters

More thoughts on vocabulary instruction from Rebekah O’Dell of Moving Writers. Thanks Rebekah!

Moving Writers

Screen Shot 2016-02-05 at 2.33.31 PM.pngYears and years ago, before I had been bitten by the writing workshop bug, I became obsessed with vocabulary instruction. My school used a series of vocabulary workbooks at each grade level, and I had witnessed how that approach didn’t worked. Not for real. Not for the long term. Some students would dutifully memorize the words, earn a high score on the quiz, and forthrightly forget most of what they had learned. Many of my students would even bother — they would sort of study the words, sort of learn some of them, earn a low quiz grade, and move on with their day.

So, I did lots of reading and research — particularly of Janet Allen — and devised a series of in-depth, meaningful approaches to actually teach vocabulary so that my students learned, retained, and used new and increasingly sophisticated words.

The problem here was time. If I…

View original post 1,146 more words

The Burning Vocabulary Question Series: How do I teach vocabulary?

Happy New Year, to all!  My apologies for the long delay!  What’s my New Year resolution?? To not let so much time lapse between posts!  (lol).  Let’s get right to it!

If you forget where we left off, you can review the last two posts: The Burning Vocabulary Question Series: Where do vocabulary words come from? and The Burning Vocabulary Question Series: Which words do I teach?

So at this point, you’ve gathered a collection of words from authentic sources and you have chosen the best words for instruction.   Now, there is only one more question left to answer:

How do I teach the chosen vocabulary words?

Past vocabulary practices have been very teacher driven, where students are passive recipients of word knowledge. This usually includes:

  • vocabulary lessons confined solely to literacy time.
  • instruction governed by a commercial program’s manual.
  • approaches that are either definitional (looking up the meaning in a dictionary) or instructional contextual (briefly introducing words prior to assigned reading).
  • approaches  that assume that students have prior knowledge of  the topic.
  • words presented only once, with little time for deeper understanding.

As many of us implement reading and writing workshop within our classroom, we realize that the above mentioned practices are not the most conducive to how students learn best. For example, many of these practices conflict with known understandings of what 21st-century students need.  Within the workshop classroom, students are now at the center, where they can actively engage with their own learning.  This shift calls for some changes to our instructional practices when it comes to vocabulary.  Research has recommended a few differing practices:

  • a comprehensive approach, where vocabulary instruction is not an isolated event.
  • instruction that is dispersed across the school day.
  • active engagement by the student during vocabulary instruction.
  • allowing multiple opportunities to work with the words in different contexts.
  • placing emphasis on expanding student prior knowledge.
  • fostering strategies for independent word learning.

I’ll take a moment to note that although I believe in the workshop model, I disagree with the notion that vocabulary is learned incidentally through exposure to words in reading materials.  Practically, and through time spent in the classroom, I just don’t think “osmosis” is enough.  Hardcore workshop proponents might argue with me, questioning whether explicit instruction is inauthentic.  However, the word gathering means described in the first post of this series, The Burning Vocabulary Question: Where do vocabulary words come from?,  create an authenticity for learners.  Also students will come across many of the explicitly taught word in their independent reading and will use the words in their writing.  By making vocabulary instruction a part of each day, students will begin to notice words, and make learning and using them a part of their daily lives.  Which I believe, is in fact, very authentic!

I find it most helpful in the classroom, to start with an instructional framework and stick with it for a period of time.  The consistency provided gives the opportunity to streamline implementation routines and create a habit.  That being said, time should be spent creating a framework that works for you, within your daily schedule.  The focus should be kept on creating a framework for fast-paced, yet varied experiences with words, where multiple review opportunities are available to develop deeper understanding of the word meanings.

Your framework should have three components.

  1. Initial explicit instruction of each word using student-friendly explanations.
  2. Meaningful activities, over a couple of days, to engage students in using the words in a variety of contexts.
  3. Assessments that gauge students’ depth of knowledge about the words.

For example, my framework looks like this:

Weekly Vocabulary Instruction Framework

The idea is to spend 10-15 minutes per day to enhance vocabulary.  You will see that you and your students learn the predictable routines of the week and work through activities efficiently.  Again, sticking with a consistent framework will allow for quick delivery of instruction.

We can also not ignore the fact that teaching and learning vocabulary is a very complex process.

Effective vocabulary instruction requires a repertoire of teaching activities and instructional strategies coupled with the teacher’s ability to choose appropriately within this repertoire”

-Blachowicz, Fisher, and Ogle (2006)

 There is not a “one size fits all” approach to teaching words.  We should have a variety of different sources and strategies to pull from in order to meet our students’ needs.  Much akin to the work done during reading and writing workshop,  So to meet the needs of all learners, the follow-up activities mentioned in the above framework must be varied.

Possible Vocabulary Activities

  1. Example/Non-Example
    1. Present students with two situations.  Ask them which one exemplifies a given vocabulary word.
      1. For example:  Which would be an example of trepidation?
        1. Jumping into a swimming pool or hesitating before testing the water?
        2. Feeling confident about signing up for a contest or having uncertain feelings about signing up?
    2. Students need to explain their reasoning.
  2. Word Association
    1. Present students with situations that go with targeted words.
      1. For example: restrictions, awe, endured
        1. When I applied for a library card, I was surprised by all of the rules that I had to follow just to borrow a book.
        2. Walking into the dinosaur exhibit at the museum for the first time, I was amazed by the huge skeletons.
        3. When I read a biography of Ghandi, I marveled at all the trials that he had to face.
    2. Students need to explain their reasoning.
  3. Generating Situations, Contexts, and Examples
    1. Students create situations and contexts for given words.
      1. For example: dignity, prejudice, humiliation
        1. How might a losing team maintain its dignity?
        2. What is an example of someone acting with prejudice?
        3. How id Marian Anderson face the humiliation of not being able to stay in certain hotels?
  4. Word Relationships
    1. Students place vocabulary words on a continuum and explain their choices.
      1. For example:
        1. Positive: awe, dignity
        2. Negative: prejudice, humiliation
  5. Writing
    1. Students complete various sentence stems
      1. For example:
        1. There were many restrictions for using the gym because _____.
        2. The decorations for the graduation ceremony were awe-inspiring _____.
        3. He had an unwavering faith in his sister’s ability because _____.
  6. Vocabulary Pictionary
    1. Students choose a word from the word wall to illustrate.
    2. Classmates must identify the word from the illustration.
  7. Vocabulary Tic-Tac-Toe (or BINGO)
    1. Fill a 3 x 3 grid with vocabulary words.
    2. Students draw an X through the word when the definition is called out.
  8. Choose a Side
    1. Choose two words that have similar meanings.
    2. Say aloud a sentence where only one word fits.
    3. Students move to stand on one side of the room or the other to show which word they believe fits the sentence (or stand in the middle if they are unsure).

One last thought…

We need to make sure that our classrooms are energized, verbal environments.  We want words to not only be noticed, but also celebrated.  Make sure you room is print-rich and there is access to dictionaries and thesauruses.  Do everything you can to make sure students are curious about words and putting in the effort to discover words and how they work.

Let me know how you do as you implement explicit vocabulary instruction into your workshop.  What does your vocabulary instruction looks like already?  Do you have other vocabulary activities to add to my list?

Let’s keep the conversation going-

Lindsay